As we all know, ina bearings are at the forefront of the world in terms of sales, quality and quality. With its professional production line, ina bearings are sold all over the world after strict factory inspection, providing support for the industrial development of the world. The quality of ina imported bearings is an important basis for it to win market recognition. So from what aspects can we judge the quality of ina imported bearings?
初め, the industrial design of the bearing is reasonable and perfect, with the world level, and the strong quality ensures its service life. INA Bearing forging must go through rigorous processes such as forging, bearing heat treatment, turning, grinding and bearing equipment. Various processing processes will affect the service life of the bearing. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The impact on the quality of finished ina imported bearings is directly related to the failure of ina bearings. With the continuous progress of scientific and technological inspection, ina bearing surface inspection found that the grinding process of metamorphic layer is closely related to the quality of ina bearing surface.
2番, the metal lottery used in INA Bearing manufacturing was once a major factor affecting bearing failure. Now, with the continuous progress of metallurgical technology, the extraction of raw materials has been well improved, and the quality of materials has been greatly improved. Now the quality factor of raw materials has decreased significantly in bearing failure. At this stage, this problem still exists.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
三番, whether the material selection of bearing manufacturing is qualified or not is also a factor that must be considered for bearing failure. In the detection of INA Bearing Failure, it is mainly to find out and solve the main factors of ina bearing failure according to a large number of Beijing materials, data analysis, failure environment and forging process, so as to facilitate the continuous optimization, service life and efficiency improvement of INA Bearing. Extend the service life of INA Bearing to avoid sudden early failure of bearing. The installation condition is one of the primary factors in the use factors. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The improper installation of INA Bearing often leads to the change of the stress state between the parts of the whole INA Bearing, and the INA Bearing operates in an abnormal state and fails early. According to the technical requirements of ina bearing installation, use, maintenance and repair, monitor and inspect the load, speed, working temperature, 振動, noise and lubrication conditions borne by the running bearing, find out the cause immediately and adjust it to make it return to normal.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The normal temperature of Koyo bearing varies with the heat capacity, 熱放散, 機械の速度と負荷. 潤滑および取り付け部品が適切かどうか, 軸受温度が急激に上昇し異常高温となる. 現時点では, the operation must be stopped and necessary preventive measures must be taken.
The working temperature of Koyo bearing can be monitored at any time by using the thermal sensor, and the automatic alarm or stop when the temperature exceeds the specified value can be realized to prevent the occurrence of combustion shaft accident.
High temperature often indicates that Koyo bearing has been in abnormal condition. High temperature is also harmful to the lubricant of Koyo bearing. ベアリングの過熱は、ベアリングの潤滑剤に起因する場合があります. ベアリングの温度が 125 長時間℃, ベアリングの耐用年数が短くなります. ベアリングが高温になる原因には、潤滑剤や潤滑剤の不足または過剰が含まれます. 不純物が含まれています, 過負荷, ベアリングリングの損傷, 不十分なクリアランス, オイルシールによる高摩擦, 等.
したがって, it is necessary to continuously monitor the bearing temperature, ベアリング自体の測定か、その他の重要な部品の測定か. 運用条件が変わらない場合, any temperature change can indicate that a fault has occurred.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The periodic measurement of Koyo bearing temperature can be aided by thermometer, such as Koyo bearing digital thermometer, which can accurately measure the bearing temperature and display it in ℃ or Fahrenheit.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The important Koyo bearing means that when it is damaged, it will cause the shutdown of the equipment. したがって, this kind of bearing should be equipped with temperature detector.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Under normal circumstances, Koyo bearings will have a natural temperature rise after just lubrication or re lubrication and last for one or two days.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
2番, check the sound condition of NTN imported bearing during rolling. Because NTN imported bearing will emit abnormal sound and irregular sound even if there is slight peeling and other damage, it can be distinguished with a sound detector. The sound detector is used to check the rolling sound and sound quality of NTN imported bearing in operation, so as to prevent it in advance.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
三番, check the temperature of NTN inlet bearing during rotation. It is more appropriate if the outer ring temperature of NTN inlet bearing can be directly measured by oil hole. 一般的, the temperature of NTN inlet bearing can be inferred based on the temperature outside the NTN inlet bearing chamber. 潤滑および取り付け部品が適切かどうか, the temperature of NTN inlet bearing will rise sharply and abnormal high temperature will occur. 現時点では, the operation must be stopped and necessary preventive measures must be taken.
一般的, the temperature of NTN imported bearing rises slowly with the start of operation and reaches a stable state after 1-2 時間. The normal temperature of NTN imported bearing varies with the heat capacity, 熱放散, speed and load of the machine.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Check the axle and find out the faults existing in Peilin before long-distance or race. In the early stage, when Peilin lubrication is seriously deteriorated, eliminate these faults in advance for lubrication or replacement, so as to avoid affecting the level of play due to hardware problems, which is very important for professional drivers and amateur drivers.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Touch is a very simple method. In industry, the lubrication problem of Peilin can lead to high temperature, which can be felt by hand. This high temperature will be harmful to the lubricant in Peilin. It is difficult for the bicycle to rotate at that high speed, or even reach the ground that makes Peilin hot. The inspection touch of the bicycle is only the axis of the flower drum rotating with the hand mold, which can feel the situation inside, The vibration indicates that there are pits or the beads are not round, and the quicksand feeling is the lack of good lubrication. If the rotation is astringent and stuck, it indicates that the oil is dry or the wrong device has caused Peilin to be misaligned and too tight.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The observation is mainly aimed at the appearance of Peilin to see whether the rubber seal has been broken. Open the rubber seal to check whether the lubricating oil is dry. Blackening means that the lubricating oil is polluted or carbonized. Whiteness and turbidity indicates water inflow. この場合, the earlier it is found, the smaller the damage after oil change. でも, the long-term use of such oil can cause irreversible damage to Peilin.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The low whine or whine of NTN means that the stethoscope is not working normally.
The sharp chirp may be caused by improper lubrication, which causes metal friction, while the hissing sound may be the pollution of lubricating oil. The irregular noise is caused by the vibration caused by the indentation of the raceway. In the absence of an electronic stethoscope, the bicycle has a very simple method. Put a wooden stick on the front fork or rear fork and turn it. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
This method can also be used for the center axle, but it is difficult to judge because the sound of the center axle will be mixed with the rear axle. There are two kinds of lubricants commonly used in Koyo bearings: lubricating oil and grease. When the circumferential speed of the shaft is less than 4-5m / s, or the parts on the vehicle that cannot be lubricated with lubricating oil, they shall be lubricated with grease. The advantage of grease lubrication is that the sealing structure is simple, the grease is not easy to lose, and it is not affected by temperature. Adding grease once can be used for a long time.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Two problems should be paid attention to when using grease. One is to select the appropriate brand of grease according to the requirements of the automobile manual. 例えば, nano base grease should not be selected for automobile water pump bearing because of its poor water resistance. The second is to add an appropriate amount of lubricating grease into the Koyo bearing. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
一般的, it is appropriate to fill only 1 / 2-L / 3 of the cavity of the Koyo bearing. Too much is not only useless, but also increases the running resistance of the Koyo bearing and heats it up. Special attention should be paid to the automobile hub bearing. It is necessary to advocate “empty hub lubrication”, あれは, only apply an appropriate layer of grease on the Koyo bearing. さもないと, it will not only waste and poor heat dissipation, but also overflow the grease by heating, which may affect the braking performance.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The advantage of lubricating oil lubrication is low friction resistance and heat dissipation. It is mainly used for Koyo bearings with high speed and high working environment temperature. The brand of lubricating oil shall be selected according to the requirements of the vehicle manual, and shall be replaced in time after the vehicle maintenance cycle. After discharging the old oil, the mechanism shall be cleaned before adding new oil. The oil shall be added to the specified marking line or flush with the oil filler (depending on the specific structure and requirements of the vehicle), and no more oil shall be added.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The assembly accuracy of cage is guaranteed by special assembly mould, which can fully meet the assembly accuracy requirements of Koyo bearing. The condition of small interference fit for the fixed ring is that both sides of the matching surface have high shape accuracy and small roughness, otherwise it will be difficult to install and more difficult to disassemble. 加えて, the influence of thermal elongation of the main shaft needs to be considered.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Surface heat treatment is divided into two categories. One is surface quenching and tempering heat treatment, which uses vibration absorption or vibration isolation devices to reduce Koyo bearing noise or isolate Koyo bearing noise. The other is chemical heat treatment. Its hardness test method is as follows: chemical heat treatment is to make the workpiece surface infiltrate atoms of one or more chemical elements, so as to change the chemical composition, organization and performance of the workpiece surface.
After quenching and low temperature tempering, the workpiece surface has high hardness, wear resistance and contact fatigue strength, and the core of the workpiece has high strength and toughness.
The main technical parameters of chemical heat treatment workpiece are hardened layer depth and surface hardness. The depth of hardened layer shall be checked by Vickers hardness tester. Check the distance from the workpiece surface to the point where the hardness drops to 50HRC. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
This is the effective hardening depth. The surface hardness inspection of chemical heat treatment workpiece is similar to that of surface quenching heat treatment workpiece. One kind of rolling bearing noise is generated by Koyo bearing itself. It can be inspected with Vickers hardness tester, surface Rockwell hardness tester or Rockwell hardness tester, but the thickness of nitriding thickness is thin, generally no more than 0.7mm. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
現時点では, Rockwell hardness tester can no longer be used. If the local hardness requirements of parts are high, local quenching heat treatment can be carried out by means of induction heating. For such parts, the location of local quenching heat treatment and local hardness value shall be marked on the drawing. The hardness inspection of parts shall be carried out in the designated area. Rockwell hardness tester can be used to test HRC hardness value. Unbalanced rotating torque – cause: incorrect installation, installation error, 等.
Timken bearing for large machinery that cannot be turned by hand, it can be started under no-load state first, and then turn off the power immediately for inertial operation. 現時点では, after confirming that there is no abnormal vibration or noise and the rotation is normal, enter the power operation.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearingsThree criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
When entering power operation, start at low speed and no load and gradually reach the specified operating conditions. The power operation inspection is mainly based on the sound, temperature rise and vibration. The cause shall be found out immediately, and the one-way bearing shall be removed for inspection when necessary.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
For the one-way sound inspection of Timken bearing, 一般的, a sound stick can be used.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The temperature inspection of one-way bearing can generally be speculated according to the shell temperature, but it is correct to directly measure the temperature of the outer ring of one-way bearing by using oil hole, etc.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The grinding layer, high-temperature layer and two-layer quenching of Timken bearing are treated in molten state. The molten metal molecular flow is evenly coated on the working surface and cooled by the base metal at a very fast speed to form an extremely thin amorphous structure layer. It has high hardness and toughness, but it is only about 10nm, which is easy to be removed in precision grinding.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The instantaneous high temperature in the grinding area of Timken bearing can make the surface heated to a certain depth (10 ~ 100nm) higher than the tempering heating temperature of the workpiece. When the austenitizing temperature is not reached, with the increase of the heating temperature, the surface layer by layer will produce the microstructure transformation of re tempering or high-temperature tempering corresponding to the heating temperature, and the hardness will also decrease. The higher the heating temperature, the more severe the decrease of hardness.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Timken bearing when the instantaneous high temperature in the grinding area heats the surface layer of the workpiece above the austenitizing temperature (AC1), the austenitized structure of the layer will be re quenched into martensitic structure in the subsequent cooling process. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
2次焼入れのあるワークの場合, the high-temperature tempering layer with very low hardness must be under the secondary quenching layer. When examining the advantages of chromium steel and stainless steel as fag bearing materials, it is found that they do not only have anti rust effect. Chromium steel is a common fag bearing material. It is harder than stainless steel, so it has a longer service life. でも, at higher temperatures, its performance is not very good.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
At the high temperature of 120c, it will undergo huge deformation and reduce the load. The continuous high temperature of 150C can be tolerated, but the instantaneous temperature of 150C or higher will reduce the service life of fag bearing. Heat treatment can make fag bearing bear the high temperature of 170C at an instant.
The 440 stainless steel commonly used for fag bearing is hard and firm enough to carry load (20% less than Brass Steel), but it can prevent rust and can withstand the instantaneous high temperature of 250C and the continuous high temperature of 300C. We often mistakenly think that all stainless steel is non-magnetic, と 440 stainless steel is magnetic. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
It is not completely rustproof, but affected by salt, acid and alkali. Grade 316 has good antirust performance, no magnetism, but it is relatively soft, so it has less load. Because it is not firm, the accuracy of 316fag bearing is not high and feels rough. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Timken imported bearings must be installed under dry and clean environmental conditions. 取り付け前, carefully check the machining quality of the mating surface of the shaft and housing, the end face of the shoulder, the groove and the connecting surface. All mating connection surfaces must be carefully cleaned and deburred, and the unprocessed surface of the casting must be cleaned of molding sand.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Timken imported bearings shall be cleaned before installation and used after drying, and good lubrication shall be ensured. The bearings are generally lubricated with grease or oil. When grease lubrication is used, grease with excellent properties such as no impurities, oxidation resistance, rust prevention and extreme pressure shall be selected. Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The filling amount of lubricating grease is 30% – 60% of the volume of bearing and bearing box, which should not be too much. The double row tapered roller bearing with sealing structure and the shaft connecting bearing of water pump have been filled with grease, which can be directly used by users and can not be cleaned.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
When installing the bearing, equal pressure must be applied on the circumference of the ferrule end face to press the ferrule in. It is not allowed to directly knock the bearing end face with hammers and other tools to avoid damaging the bearing. Under the condition of small interference, the end face of the bearing ring can be pressed with the sleeve at room temperature, the sleeve can be knocked with a hammer, and the ring can be pressed in evenly through the sleeve.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
If it is installed in large quantities, hydraulic press can be used. When pressing in, ensure that the end face of the outer ring and the end face of the housing shoulder, the end face of the inner ring and the end face of the shaft shoulder are pressed tightly, and there is no gap.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
When the interference is large, the bearing can be installed by oil bath heating or inductor heating. The heating temperature range is 80 ℃ – 100 ℃, and the height cannot exceed 120 ℃. 同時に, tighten the bearing with nuts or other appropriate methods to prevent the gap between the ferrule and the shaft shoulder caused by the width contraction of Timken inlet bearing after cooling.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
The clearance of single row tapered roller bearing shall be adjusted after installation. The clearance value shall be determined according to different working conditions and the interference of the fit. If necessary, it shall be determined by test. The clearance of double row tapered roller bearing and water pump shaft connecting bearing has been adjusted at the factory, so it is not necessary to adjust it during installation.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings
Timken imported bearings shall be installed with rotation test. 初め, they shall be used for rotating shaft or bearing box. If there is no abnormality, they can run at no-load and low speed with power, and then gradually increase the rotation speed and load according to the operation, and detect the noise, vibration and temperature rise. If any abnormality is found, they shall stop running and check. It can be delivered for use only after the operation test is normal. いつもの, the temperature of Koyo bearing.Three criteria for judging the failure of ina imported bearings